May 14, 2005
Where will you be on April 13, 2029?
That's the day asteroid 2004 MN4, a 1,000–foot–wide stone missile, will make a relatively close pass to our planet, coming within 15,000 to 25,000 miles of our home at very high speed.
For reference, that's about one–tenth of the distance between the Earth and the moon.
The asteroid was first spotted last June, 106 million miles from Earth.
In December a second sighting, when the asteroid was 9 million miles away, allowed astronomers to refine their calculations of the future course of the asteroid.
What they discovered was not reassuring: impact probability in 2029 was estimated at 1 in 38, disturbingly high.
When this was announced, a major recalculation of the asteroids earlier position was undertaken, and more refined and precise plotting of its course resulted in impact on April 13, 2029 being ruled out.
Asteroid 2004 MN is considered a "regional" hazard: big enough to flatten the state of Texas or several European countries with an impact equivalent to 10,000 megatons of dynamite — more than all the nuclear weapons of the world combined.
So things look OK as far as 2029 goes.
But who knows, really?
Here's Guy Gugliotta's fascinating story about the asteroid, from the April 9 Washington Post.
- Science's Doomsday Team vs. the Asteroids
Astronomer David Tholen spotted it last year in the early evening of June 19, using the University of Arizona's Bok telescope.
It was a new "near-Earth object," a fugitive asteroid wandering through space to pass close to Earth.
Tholen's team took three pictures that night and three the next night, but storm clouds and the moon blocked further observations.
They reported their fixes to the Minor Planet Center in Cambridge, Mass., and moved on.
Six months later, Tholen's object was spotted again in Australia as asteroid "2004 MN4."
In the space of five days straddling Christmas, startled astronomers refined their calculations as the probability of the 1,000-foot-wide stone missile hitting Earth rose from one chance in 170 to one in 38.
They had never measured anything as potentially dangerous to Earth.
Impact would come on Friday the 13th in April 2029.
The holidays and the tsunami in South Asia pushed 2004 MN4 out of the news, and in the meantime additional observations showed that the asteroid would miss, but only by 15,000 to 25,000 miles -- about one-tenth the distance to the moon.
Asteroid 2004 MN4 was no false alarm.
Instead, it has provided the world with the best evidence yet that a catastrophic encounter with a rogue visitor from space is not only possible but probably inevitable.
It also demonstrated the tenacity of the small band of professionals and amateurs who track potential impact asteroids, and highlighted the shortcomings of an international system that pays scant attention to their work.
"I used to say the total number of people interested in this was no more than one shift at a McDonald's restaurant," said David Morrison, an astronomer at NASA's Ames Research Center and a student of near-Earth objects for nearly three decades.
"Now it's maybe two shifts."
Awareness of the apocalyptic potential of near-Earth objects has been slow to develop.
It took years for Nobel laureate Luis Alvarez and his son Walter to win acceptance for their 1980 research showing that a near-Earth object impact quite likely caused the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.
"The human brain wouldn't grasp reality until it had somewhat more direct evidence," said Colorado-based planetary scientist Clark R. Chapman of the Southwest Research Institute, another longtime expert on near-Earth objects.
"Alvarez provided that."
The vast majority of near-Earth objects are asteroids -- huge rocks or chunks of iron that travel around the sun in eccentric orbits that cross Earth's path periodically.
The rest are comets -- ancient piles of dust, stones and ice that come in from the edges of the solar system.
"The good news is that comets represent 1 percent of the danger," said Donald K. Yeomans, who manages NASA's Near-Earth Object Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
"The bad news is that should we find one, there's not a lot we can do about it. . . . We detect them only nine months from impact."
Asteroids, by contrast, generally offer decades or even centuries of warning -- unless they are too small to detect, in which case there is no warning at all.
But today's technology enables astronomers to get a fix on any asteroid capable of causing a global "extinction event" -- six miles in diameter or bigger.
Asteroid 2004 MN4 is a "regional" hazard -- big enough to flatten Texas or a couple of European countries with an impact equivalent to 10,000 megatons of dynamite -- more than all the nuclear weapons in the world.
Even though it will be a near miss in 2029, that will not be the last word.
"You don't know what the gravitational effect of the Earth will be," said Brian G. Marsden, who oversees the hunt for near-Earth objects as director of the Minor Planet Center at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
"In 2029, the [close encounter with] Earth will increase the size of the orbit, and the object could get into a resonance with the Earth," he added.
"You could get orbit matchups every five years or nine years, or something in between."
In fact, 2004 MN4 could come close again in 2034, 2035, 2036, 2037, 2038 or later.
So, what can be done?
The first thought, dramatically depicted in the 1998 movies "Deep Impact" and "Armageddon," is to nuke the intruder into small pieces so it will burn up in Earth's atmosphere.
Many scientists say, however, that this is unacceptably sloppy -- instead of obliterating the target, the bomb could break the asteroid into large radioactive chunks capable of transforming huge stretches of Earth into wasteland.
Or the explosion could deflect but not destroy the asteroid, putting it on a future collision course.
A nuclear strategy would also forever require a stockpile of doomsday weapons.
"The cure's worse than the disease," said former Apollo astronaut Russell L. "Rusty" Schweickart.
He is a board member of the B612 Foundation, a group of experts promoting a space mission by 2015 to send a "tugboat" spacecraft to a near-Earth object, dock with it and gently alter its speed enough to change its orbit -- to show that it can be done. (B612 is the name of the asteroid home of "The Little Prince," in the Antoine de Saint-Exupery story.)
"You want to delay or speed up the asteroid a little," said Berlin-based Alan Harris, chairman of the European Space Agency's Near-Earth Object Mission Advisory Panel.
"What kind of surface do you have: Is it rocky? Dusty? Rubbly? How much force can I apply? I don't want to break it up -- unless I really break it up."
B612 has a design but little money, while ESA has spent only a nominal amount to study the feasibility of a reconnaissance mission to an asteroid.
NASA, at $4 million a year, is currently the big spender for near-Earth object research.
With this, NASA maintains a database at JPL to plot and record orbits for all known near-Earth objects, and contributes money to the Minor Planet Center and to sky surveys underway at telescopes in Arizona, California, Hawaii, New Mexico and Australia.
The money was authorized after a push from Congress led by Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-Calif.), a conservative, and former House Science Committee chairman George E. Brown Jr. (D-Calif.), known as one of Congress's most liberal members before his death in 1999.
"I have a vision of something terrible happening, and I feel compelled to see that it doesn't happen," Rohrabacher said.
NASA's task -- which Congress imposed in 1998 -- is to find 90 percent of the estimated 1,100 near-Earth objects that are one kilometer (0.6 miles) or greater in diameter by 2008. As of mid-March, JPL's database included 762 of these.
On March 1, Rohrabacher introduced the George E. Brown Jr. Near-Earth Object Survey Act, mandating $40 million for a two-year start-up to survey every object 100 meters (328 feet) across or larger, of which there may be 300,000.
To date, Marsden has registered 3,265 near-Earth objects of all sizes.
Tholen, of the University of Hawaii, is a frequent contributor in the search for threatening objects.
He specializes in "Atens," a subspecies that orbit mostly between the Earth and the sun and are difficult to see in the glare of the sun.
To spot Atens, astronomers must work at dawn or dusk.
Tholen's team, on a field trip to the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory, had booked an hour on the evenings of June 19, 20, 23 and 24, 2004.
They found a new Aten on the first evening and saw it again on the second evening.
It was about 106 million miles away.
The team recorded the sightings and sent them electronically to Marsden, who published the object's position, which he named 2004 MN4 in accordance with a complicated coding system based on the date of discovery.
Tholen waited for another opportunity, but rain clouds cloaked the sky.
When the storm passed, the moon was squatting right where the team wanted to look.
For the next six months, nobody looked for it.
Then, on Dec. 18, astronomer Gordon Garradd, working at the Siding Springs telescope in Coonabarabran, Australia, 240 miles northwest of Sydney, spotted what he thought was a new near-Earth object, "brightly lit and traveling fast," he recalled.
He took four images in his first set, then followed up with two more sets.
Marsden's team put Garradd's data on the center's Web page, a signal for astronomers to get more fixes.
On Dec. 20, JPL produced its solution.
Chance of impact was one in 2,500 -- nothing to get excited about.
"Usually the probability goes down with more observations," Marsden said.
Not this time.
On Dec. 23, the risk rose to one in 270, and rose steadily over Christmas and beyond.
"We'd never had anything this big come this close, and we'd never predicted anything like it," Marsden said.
"It was quite fantastic." The asteroid was 9 million miles away -- about as close as it would get this trip.
By Dec. 26, the impact probability had risen to one chance in 38.
What the plotters needed was a "precovery," an overlooked observation from before Tholen's initial June fixes to yield a more precise orbital solution.
In Tucson, astronomers at the Spacewatch Project, at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, started searching their archive.
Spacewatch has been surveying the solar system for 20 years, and precovery is a specialty.
"We store [our images] on DVDs," Spacewatch leader Robert S. McMillan said.
"If there's something that wasn't automatically sorted by our software, we can usually find it -- if we were looking in the right place at the right time."
On Dec. 27, Spacewatch astronomers Jeffrey Larsen and Anne Descour found 2004 MN4 in a series of images taken March 15, more than three months before Tholen's sighting.
They passed the word to JPL, which issued a news bulletin: "An Earth impact on 13 April 2029 can now be ruled out."
Since then, astronomers have continued to observe 2004 MN4 whenever possible, but most of the time it is obscured.
"It would be awfully nice to have information so we don't get surprised," said Schweickart, who advocates flying a small interceptor mission to plant a transponder on 2004 MN4 that would constantly radio its location, tagging it like a grizzly bear.
"Our favorite little asteroid might provide enough reality here to provoke people. Maybe we should get serious."
Official Alien Swim Cap
Sure, it's being marketed as the world's first ergonomic swim cap but ask yourself: do humans really require "ear pockets" as featured in this tricked–out version (above)?
I don't think so.
For those beings with head extrusions and antennas that struggle to find a comfortable place in conventional caps, though, this new model is a godsend.
Comes in a stylish extraterrestrial green to match your scales.
"One size fits all."
Fogscreen — 'Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic'*
A screen you can walk through.
It's a physically penetrable dry fog display enabling high–quality projections that make images appear to floating on air.
"Videre est credere"**: watch the video.
*Arthur C. Clarke ("Profiles of the Future," 1961)
**Seeing is believing
My Analyst 8–Ball
For $7.95 you get a 3.75" plastic ball (above) "with the patience, compassion and sensitivity of the best shrink in town."
Hard to argue with a pitch like that, what?
"Unload all your whacked–out theories, fears and dreams onto My Analyst, then turn the ball over and follow its lead."
You'll feel better immediately and "you won't receive a bill that sends you into another panic attack."
Go to your happy place.
That will be $150, thank you.
We accept all major (and most minor) credit cards.
International Brick Collectors Association
"We are a non–profit organization, brick collecting is our hobby."
Annual membership costs $15 and includes a subscription to the group's journal, which comes out three times a year.
"We do not buy or sell brick to each other... we trade and give to one another."
My philosophy precisely.
Pay it forward, as it were.
On my refrigerator is a postcard that reads,
Love is the only thing you get more of by giving it away
I have yet to find an exception to this rule.
"Never do we pick up just a plain brick, we call them 'vanillas.'"
From now on I will too.
A dear former girlfriend with a flair for language called the human equivalent of vanillas "dull normals."
Along with your membership in the society you get access to the librarian, Jim Graves, who will answer all your "brick questions."
And I know what a backlog you've accumulated over all this time.
Sign–up information may be found here.
Japanese–style panko breadcrumbs were once available only at specialty stores and Asian markets in cellophane packages.
Known for its stay–crisp power, panko is lighter and coarser than regular dried bread crumbs.
Ian's all–natural frozen foods of Revere, Massachusetts uses panko in several of its products.
In response to its customers asking for the panko by itself, Ian's obliged with bottled regular, whole–wheat and Italian–seasoned versions.
Put them on casseroles, cutlets and salads, among other things.
They're available at Whole Foods in 7 oz. bottles for $2.99.
Online I found the whole–wheat variety (above) for $3.36 here.
[via the Washington Post]
2,500–year–old Iron Age shoe discovered in Britain
Unearthed from an old well in Somerset, it was made from a single piece of leather thread–stitched up the heel, then laced across the top.
The shoe (above) is approximately 30 centimeters long, corresponding to a modern size 10 male.
There is no base or formal sole; such a feature did not appear in shoes until Roman times, between 43 A.D. and 410 A.D.
The shoe is now in a conservation center in Salisbury, Wiltshire and is expected to go to the Royal Albert Memorial Museum in Exeter.
For reference, the world's oldest shoes, made of woven grass, are 8,000 years old.
They were found in caves in what is now the southern U.S.
World's Best Oven Glove
When Robert L. Wolke, author of the excellent weekly "Food 101" column in the Washington Post, says something is good I listen — very carefully.
Wolke is professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh; his latest book is "What Einstein Told His Cook 2: The Sequel — Further Adventures in Kitchen Science."
In last Wednesday's column he wrote, "It gave me great pleasure to throw away my oven mitt the other day. It was a thick and clumsy terry–cloth one, and it made me feel like a pianist in boxing gloves."
He then outlined his history of oven mitt adventures and recent epiphany stumbling upon the 'Ove' Glove (above and below).
Long story short: he loves it.
He wrote, "It is perhaps the most liberating kitchen tool since the can opener."
Now that's high praise indeed.
You can buy the 'Ove' glove at K–Mart and elsewhere; it's $14.99 here.