September 28, 2008
'Look Who's Irrational Now' — by Mollie Ziegler Hemingway
Long story short: "The Gallup Organization, under contract to Baylor's Institute for Studies of Religion, asked American adults a series of questions to gauge credulity. Do dreams foretell the future? Did ancient advanced civilizations such as Atlantis exist? Can places be haunted? Is it possible to communicate with the dead? Will creatures like Bigfoot and the Loch Ness Monster someday be discovered by science?"
"The answers were added up to create an index of belief in occult and the paranormal. While 31% of people who never worship expressed strong belief in these things, only 8% of people who attend a house of worship more than once a week did."
Here's the piece.
- Look Who's Irrational Now
"You can't be a rational person six days of the week and put on a suit and make rational decisions and go to work and, on one day of the week, go to a building and think you're drinking the blood of a 2,000-year-old space god," comedian and atheist Bill Maher said earlier this year on "Late Night With Conan O'Brien."
On the "Saturday Night Live" season debut last week, homeschooling families were portrayed as fundamentalists with bad haircuts who fear biology. Actor Matt Damon recently disparaged Sarah Palin by referring to a transparently fake email that claimed she believed that dinosaurs were Satan's lizards. And according to prominent atheists like Richard Dawkins, traditional religious belief is "dangerously irrational." From Hollywood to the academy, nonbelievers are convinced that a decline in traditional religious belief would lead to a smarter, more scientifically literate and even more civilized populace.
The reality is that the New Atheist campaign, by discouraging religion, won't create a new group of intelligent, skeptical, enlightened beings. Far from it: It might actually encourage new levels of mass superstition. And that's not a conclusion to take on faith — it's what the empirical data tell us.
"What Americans Really Believe," a comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows that traditional Christian religion greatly decreases belief in everything from the efficacy of palm readers to the usefulness of astrology. It also shows that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians.
The Gallup Organization, under contract to Baylor's Institute for Studies of Religion, asked American adults a series of questions to gauge credulity. Do dreams foretell the future? Did ancient advanced civilizations such as Atlantis exist? Can places be haunted? Is it possible to communicate with the dead? Will creatures like Bigfoot and the Loch Ness Monster someday be discovered by science?
The answers were added up to create an index of belief in occult and the paranormal. While 31% of people who never worship expressed strong belief in these things, only 8% of people who attend a house of worship more than once a week did.
Even among Christians, there were disparities. While 36% of those belonging to the United Church of Christ, Sen. Barack Obama's former denomination, expressed strong beliefs in the paranormal, only 14% of those belonging to the Assemblies of God, Sarah Palin's former denomination, did. In fact, the more traditional and evangelical the respondent, the less likely he was to believe in, for instance, the possibility of communicating with people who are dead.
This is not a new finding. In his 1983 book "The Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener," skeptic and science writer Martin Gardner cited the decline of traditional religious belief among the better educated as one of the causes for an increase in pseudoscience, cults and superstition. He referenced a 1980 study published in the magazine Skeptical Inquirer that showed irreligious college students to be by far the most likely to embrace paranormal beliefs, while born-again Christian college students were the least likely.
Surprisingly, while increased church attendance and membership in a conservative denomination has a powerful negative effect on paranormal beliefs, higher education doesn't. Two years ago two professors published another study in Skeptical Inquirer showing that, while less than one-quarter of college freshmen surveyed expressed a general belief in such superstitions as ghosts, psychic healing, haunted houses, demonic possession, clairvoyance and witches, the figure jumped to 31% of college seniors and 34% of graduate students.
We can't even count on self-described atheists to be strict rationalists. According to the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life's monumental "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey" that was issued in June, 21% of self-proclaimed atheists believe in either a personal God or an impersonal force. Ten percent of atheists pray at least weekly and 12% believe in heaven.
On Oct. 3, Mr. Maher debuts "Religulous," his documentary that attacks religious belief. He talks to Hasidic scholars, Jews for Jesus, Muslims, polygamists, Satanists, creationists, and even Rael — prophet of the Raelians — before telling viewers: "The plain fact is religion must die for man to live."
But it turns out that the late-night comic is no icon of rationality himself. In fact, he is a fervent advocate of pseudoscience. The night before his performance on Conan O'Brien, Mr. Maher told David Letterman — a quintuple bypass survivor — to stop taking the pills that his doctor had prescribed for him. He proudly stated that he didn't accept Western medicine. On his HBO show in 2005, Mr. Maher said: "I don't believe in vaccination. . . . Another theory that I think is flawed, that we go by the Louis Pasteur [germ] theory." He has told CNN's Larry King that he won't take aspirin because he believes it is lethal and that he doesn't even believe the Salk vaccine eradicated polio.
Anti-religionists such as Mr. Maher bring to mind the assertion of G.K. Chesterton's Father Brown character that all atheists, secularists, humanists and rationalists are susceptible to superstition: "It's the first effect of not believing in God that you lose your common sense, and can't see things as they are."
September 28, 2008 at 02:01 PM | Permalink
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Atheists actually have an inconveniently low level of belief in paranormal claptrap for the Baylor researchers - Baylor being, I remind you, a very stoutly Baptist institution, which strongly desires to persuade people that the only alternative to Christian theism is belief in Atlantis, fairies, ouija boards, et cetera.
To make the numbers work for them, the researchers therefore rolled "the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations" together when investigating "superstition".
And sure, lots of people who say they're Christian also believe all sorts of wacky stuff. So you just add their numbers to the much less impressive atheist numbers, and there you are!
And here, in case you were wondering, is Matt Damon talking about Sarah Palin. It's only one minute and forty-two seconds long, but that was apparently a little TOO long for the WSJ writer's attention span.
Note that Mr Damon doesn't actually say anything about "Satan's lizards". He wants to know whether Palin "really thinks dinosaurs were here four thousand years ago". Which she has been reported to have said, and which is not a controversial belief among members of her former church.
I cordially invite this WSJ writer to check her sources, and/or stop lying. If that's OK with her.
Posted by: Daniel Rutter | Sep 29, 2008 10:04:46 AM
Superstition is a fundamental fact for ANY mammal. It has been proven over and over in studies...there are experiments where one can teach pigeons and rats superstitious thought and their actions become predictably irrational when given certain situations. An entire genre of study is based around this. Humans just like the formalized version of this.
Generally, we only hold onto a few superstitions at a time. This would account for why the religious are not susceptible to it...they already have their own superstition in place. The athiests? I've met more folks that claim to be this that buy into astrology than anyone else (and they always claim science is behind them).
Me? I attend two houses of worship...a Buddhist temple as well as a Quaker meeting house. I look at the rational aspects of the first (I like the teaching as a way of life from the first, and honestly, I believe Jesus existed and trust his teachings, its his big daddy that I'm not quite sure if he is around). Even though I profess to only believe in the rational side, I know a lot of my superstitions have gone away since attending these in regularity. Maybe I do believe in some of the paranormal aspects and I don't want to believe I do.
Who knows...I just wish I was Catholic so I could find someone to sign off on my AA card while we have a drink together!
Posted by: clifyt | Sep 29, 2008 9:10:37 AM
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