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June 16, 2007

BehindTheMedspeak: More shock than awe to accompany cheap DNA testing — 'Who's your daddy?'

Human_chrom

Repeated studies have demonstrated that the man 5% to 15% of the population call "father" is in fact not their biological parent.

Now comes Steve Olson, writing in the latest (July/August 2007) issue of the Atlantic about the unintended consequences of widespread, inexpensive DNA screening for disease.

Here's the article.

    Who’s Your Daddy?

    The unintended consequences of genetic screening for disease

    A few months ago, I sat down at my desk to open a letter that could tell me whether my father was really my father. In fact, that letter could tell me whether the men going back 10 generations on my paternal side were the biological fathers of their children.

    I wasn’t caught up in some bizarre multigenerational paternity suit. A scientific officer at a genetic testing company knew that I was interested in genealogy, and he had offered to run my DNA through a sequencer. A few weeks earlier, I’d swished mouthwash inside my cheeks, sealed the mouthwash in a tube, and mailed the tube to the company.

    My doughty Scandinavian ancestors passed the test. My DNA revealed no obvious instances where the man named on a birth certificate differed from the man who was my biological ancestor. But I was lucky. Many efforts to trace male ancestry using DNA terminate at what geneticists delicately call a “non-paternity event.” According to Bennett Greenspan, whose company, Family Tree DNA, sponsors proj­ects that attempt to link different families to common ancestors, “Any project that has more than 20 or 30 people in it is likely to have an oops in it.”

    The law of unintended consequences is about to catch up with the genetic-testing industry. Geneticists and physicians would like us all to have our DNA sequenced. That way we’ll know about our genetic flaws, and this knowledge could let us take steps to prevent future health problems. But genetic tests can also identify the individuals from whom we got our DNA. Widespread genetic testing could reveal many uncomfortable details about what went on in our parents’ and grandparents’ bedrooms.

    The problem would not loom so large if non-paternity were rare. But it isn’t. When geneticists do large-scale studies of populations, they sometimes can’t help but learn about the paternity of the research subjects. They rarely publish their findings, but the numbers are common knowledge within the genetics community. In graduate school, genetics students typically are taught that 5 to 15 percent of the men on birth certificates are not the biological fathers of their children. In other words, as many as one of every seven men who proudly carry their newborn children out of a hospital could be a cuckold.

    Non-paternity rates appear to be substantially lower in some populations. The Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, which is based in Salt Lake City, now has a genetic and genealogical database covering almost 100,000 volunteers, with an overrepresentation of people interested in genealogy. The non-paternity rate for a representative sample of its father-son pairs is less than 2 percent. But other reputed non-paternity rates are higher than the canonical numbers. One unpublished study of blood groups in a town in southeastern England indicated that 30 percent of the town’s husbands could not have been the biological fathers of their children.

    Even with a low non-paternity rate, the odds increase with each successive generation. Given an average non-paternity rate of 5 percent, the chance of such an event occurring over 10 generations exceeds 40 percent.

    Most people can’t look that far back on their family trees, but I can. Someone on the Olson side of my family once spent an inordinate amount of time tracing the family’s male lineage. My relative’s genealogical research indicated that my father’s father’s father’s father’s father’s father’s father’s father’s father’s father migrated from Finland to Norway in the middle of the 17th century. If that is the case, I have a particular connection to that man.

    Men pass most of their Y chromosomes down to their sons intact and unadulterated. I therefore have the same Y chromosome as my father, and his father, and so on. (In fact, all men living today have inherited the Y chromosome of a single man who lived about 50,000 years ago, probably in eastern Africa. But mutations have slowly changed the Y chromosome over many generations, which is why the Y chromosomes of Finns generally differ from those of Greeks. Nevertheless, over the course of 10 or even 100 generations, the changes typically are small and the heritage is clear.) The continuity of the Y chromosome is how we know that Thomas Jefferson almost certainly had children with his slave Sally Hemings: Her direct male descendants have the same Y chromosome as Jefferson’s paternal uncle, who presumably had the same Y chromosome as Jefferson. (Similar tests can reveal whether sons and daughters are really descended from their mothers and grandmothers, though non-maternity is much rarer than non-paternity.)

    My Y chromosome turned out to be as Finnish as sautéed reindeer — I al‑ most certainly inherited it from that 17th-century Finnish émigré. But even if my Y chromosome had turned out to be suspiciously un-Finnish, I probably could have come up with a story to protect my legitimacy. I could have said that my Finnish ancestor was the descendant of a Mongolian invader, or the son of a trader from Istanbul, or even a Spanish diplomat fallen on hard times (though in fact I know that he was a peasant farmer). I could have said that one of the men in my paternal lineage was adopted after his mother and father died. The imagination is a wonderful balm for bruised expectations.

    But genetic tests don’t lie, which means that our imaginations may be in for a workout. For example, groups of people in many parts of the world trace their lineage to particularly prominent male ancestors. In some cases, genetic tests reveal a kernel of truth behind these stories. Genghis Khan’s Y chromosome really is widely distributed in Asia, for instance. Still, many of these stories have social rather than genealogical roots. “Many times we romanticize about the different groups that we have ancestry with,” says Rick Kittles, a geneticist at the University of Chicago who founded the company African Ancestry. When Kittles has told clients that their genetic tests don’t coincide with what they believe, a few, he says, have been shattered.

    Frankly, I hadn’t thought much about these issues before sitting down to open that letter from the genetic testing company. If I had, I doubt I would have agreed to the test. If my Y chromosome was not what I expected, would I tell other family members about it — including my teenaged son? Would I have been tempted to encourage my brother, then my male cousins through my father’s brothers, then my male second cousins through my grandfather’s brothers, and so on to be tested so that I could determine where the non-paternity occurred? I think we’d all have been better off assuming the best and shunning the test.

    But the pressure to undergo genetic testing is about to increase. New technologies are reducing the cost of sequencing DNA. Researchers are now establishing extensive databases of DNA sequences combined with health information so they can link specific genes to diseases. And once the contributions of our genes to common diseases are discovered, everyone could benefit from DNA testing. Already, the Personal Genome Project at Harvard University is seeking volunteers who are willing to have their DNA sequences and medical information posted on the Web for biomedical purposes, even though the project warns that a person’s DNA could be used to “infer paternity or other features of the volunteer’s genealogy.”

    Two of the men most responsible for the sequencing of the human genome — James Watson and Craig Venter — are making most of their genomes available on the Web. But if their sons ever decide to have their DNA tested, they could face the same situation I did in opening that letter. Watson has kept part of his genome private because he doesn’t want his sons and the public to know whether he has a genetic variant predisposing him to Alzheimer’s disease; he seems unconcerned about what the rest might reveal.

    Genetic counselors have been struggling with the issue of non-paternity for years. When a child is born with a genetic disorder, the parents may go to a counselor to learn whether they should try to have more children. If tests reveal that the presumed father of the child is not the biological father, most counselors will tell only the mother. But a vocal minority insists that paternity should be known to all.

    So far, the expense of these tests has limited their use to cases like the one above, where a serious genetic disorder is already apparent. But what will happen when people begin sequencing large parts of their DNA routinely, to see whether they are vulnerable to specific diseases? If you discovered a predisposition to heart attacks or prostate cancer, and medications could reduce your vulnerability, wouldn’t you want to tell your siblings and cousins? And shouldn’t they be tested, too? Yet in the absence of stringent and possibly unattainable privacy protections, widespread testing will lead to many unpleasant surprises.

    Geneticists have only begun to think about how to protect people from knowing themselves too well. But they probably should have seen this problem coming a long time ago. An oft-quoted definition of their field is: “Genetics explains why you look like your father — and if you don’t, why you should.”

June 16, 2007 at 04:01 PM | Permalink | Comments (3) | TrackBack

Kernel Kutter — Episode 3: Price Break

Chngcv_2

When we last touched on the subject of corn kernel removers back on April 24, 2007, the best available price was $8.99.

Get ready to gasp — my crack research team has located one with the low, low price of $3.99.

And if you order now... wait a minute, joe — that's what the fast-talking guy on TV says, not you.

Pull yourself together, already.

From the website:

    Kernel Kutter

    Quick, easy way to get the kernels off the cob.

    Stand the ear on a plate, slip the cutter over the top and slide it down slowly; the circular blade shears all the kernels from the cob at the same time.

    Adjusts to fit varying diameters.

    Metal cutter is 9-3/4" long.

    Vinyl-covered handle.

...................

You want corn with yours?

Is your name Flautist?

If not, sit down and... well, you know the rest.

$3.99.

June 16, 2007 at 03:01 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

WreckedExotics.com — 'It's like watching a supermodel fall off the runway'

Obal717_crash__20070613174158

That's what Gregg Fidan, founder of the website WreckedExotics.com, which features just that — photos of dream cars reduced by crashes to smoking heaps — told Wall Street Journal reporter Jennifer Saranow in a story which appeared in yesterday's paper.

It's no wonder stuff happens, what with vehicles like the $1.5 million Bugatti Veyron — with 1001 horsepower, a top speed of 253 mph and a 0 to 60 time of 2.5 seconds — in the hands of overconfident amateur drivers pushing their cars to speeds even professionals couldn't handle.

Here's a link to a video which accompanied the newspaper article.

The caption to the photo up top reads, "One participant in last year's Gumball rally crashed his purple Lamborghini Murcielago Roadster in Thailand. As it was going down an incline at more than 100 mph, it went over a 'massive' bump that sent it flying. When it landed, the right front wheel buckled and the vehicle spun off into the trees, taking down a few. It conveniently landed perfectly parked in a bar parking lot."

June 16, 2007 at 02:01 PM | Permalink | Comments (2) | TrackBack

Sun Timer Watch

Jpijupijupij

From the website:

    Sun Timer Watch

    The ultimate UV ray meter — and a whole lot more.

    Simply enter your skin type and sunscreen SPF into this ingenious device and it tracks your sun exposure and alarms you when you need to get out of the sun.

    Also functions as a watch, stopwatch, and alarm.

    • Adjustable band: wear on your wrist or arm, or attach to a backpack or stroller

    • Dynamic readout darkens or brightens according to available light

    • Waterproof down to 32.8' (10 meters)

    • Made by Minox of Germany

    • One size

$48.95.

June 16, 2007 at 01:01 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

American Icon — Iconaholic offers them free

Iconaholic

It is what it says.

[via redferret]

June 16, 2007 at 12:01 PM | Permalink | Comments (1) | TrackBack

Ferragamo Signoria

1ouihpijpij

Suede and grosgrain with bow detailing and a diamond-patterned wedge.

2uihipijip

2.75" heel height.

4bgjupipi

$240.90.

June 16, 2007 at 11:01 AM | Permalink | Comments (2) | TrackBack

Experts' Expert: Corby Kummer on 'The Perfect Knife'

Hgihijuipuj

This superb food writer's essay on the subject appeared in the April, 2007 issue of The Atlantic magazine.

What didn't appear there was a most informative accompanying video on the subject, viewable here.

June 16, 2007 at 10:01 AM | Permalink | Comments (1) | TrackBack

Comb Cleaner — Why use your fingers when you can employ a specialized tool instead?

Jojkokjo

Maybe because your fingers work fine and they're always present, while you have to have this tool nearby to use it?

That's just my dark side talking, ignore it.

From websites:

    Fuller™ Comb Cleaner

    Fuller's expert tool cleans combs, keeping you looking your best!

    Polypropylene comb cleaner has twisted-in wire bristles to clean comb teeth quickly.

    5" long.

$2.99.

June 16, 2007 at 09:01 AM | Permalink | Comments (3) | TrackBack

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